Module 4


Unit III: “… to know the nature of the people well one must be a prince, and to know the nature of princes well one must be of the people.”
Essential Question: How do authors use craft and structure to develop characters and ideas?

In this unit students read excerpts from The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli. Students continue to explore central ideas similar to those present in 10.4.1 and 10.4.2, such as the relationship between appearance and reality and the intersection of morality and ambition with imbalance and disorder.
Students also analyze Machiavelli’s use of rhetoric to advance his point of view.
Students also have a discussion about how Machiavelli’s ideas about leadership might apply to the character of Macbeth.

Common Core Standards

RI.9-10.6 Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.
RI.9-10.5 Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular sentences, paragraphs, or larger portions of a text (e.g., a section or chapter).
RL.9-10.2 Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text.
RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.
L.9-10.4.a Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence, paragraph, or text; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
W.9-10.9.b Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
L.9-10.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
L.9-10.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.

Suggested Student Objectives

Students will be required to:
1) Suggested Student Objectives
2) Students will be required to:
3) Read closely for textual details
4) Annotate texts to support comprehension and analysis
5) Engage in productive, evidence-based conversations about texts
6) Determine meaning of unknown vocabulary
7) Independently preview text in preparation for supported analysis
8) Provide an objective summary of the text
9) Paraphrase and quote relevant evidence from a text
10)Analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance his point of view
11)Write original evidence-based claims
12)Generate and respond to questions in scholarly discourse

Suggested Text

The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli (nonfiction)
Macbeth by William Shakespeare

Resource Links

Engageny: https://www.engageny.org/resource/grade-10-english-language-arts
The Prince by Niccolo Machiavelli pdf
Analyze nonfiction: Central and main Ideas pdf
Answer the BIG Question with Examples and Evidence pdf

Activities

Fishbowl protocol:Activity 5: Fishbowl Discussion
The fishbowl discussion is designed to mimic real-life interactions, where people move in and out of conversations as contributors or as recipients of information. The activity promotes active listening for students and allows them to join and contribute as they feel comfortable. The purpose of the fishbowl discussion is to facilitate student discussion around the two “Mr. Julius Caesar” competitions in a structured manner. Arrange the students into two mixed groups: an inner Group (A) and an outer Group (B).
Explain that as Group A discusses questions posed by the teacher, Group B observes and listens to Group A’s discussion.
When a member of Group B wants to join Group A’s discussion, students should tap a Group A classmate and they trade places. Explain that all students should be in Groups A and B at some point during the discussion.
  • Students listen.
  • Arrange the desks in two concentric circles. Members of the inner circle discuss questions posed by the teacher. Members of the outer circle listen, observe, and decide when they would like to swap places in order to contribute to the discussion taking place.
  • Teachers may wish to set up parameters for this task (e.g., time limits, number of student swaps, number of student swaps per discussion question) so that the flow of student discussion is not disrupted in a way that curbs the quality of the conversation.
  • Depending on class size, there may be more than one fishbowl at a time. In this situation, the teacher may want to solicit note takers to keep track of the ideas being expressed. Note takers can share after the fishbowl discussion.
Fishbowl protocol in a 10th grade ELA class:https://www.engageny.org/resource/a-protocol-for-citing-evidence-from-informational-text-from-expeditionary-learningActivity 1: Art/Class

Stay and Stray

The teacher will divide the class into groups of four or five students, with each group getting a poem and/or piece of artwork, an oversized sheet of paper, and markers. Within the groups, the students will analyze the poem/artwork that was assigned to them and discuss their thoughts and feelings relating to the work. The group will then use the oversized sheet of paper and markers in order to create a visual presentation of their discussion. At the end of the group activity, one student will volunteer to be the presenter while the other members of the group will watch the presentations of the other groups. The students watching the presentations will have a short period of time to read the poem assigned to the other group or view the piece of artwork. The presenters will then discuss what their group thought and explain the work that was completed.

Table Text

The teacher will divide the class into groups of four or five students. Each group will receive a poem along with a worksheet presenting four to five questions (enough for each student in the group to always have a question to answer). The students will read the poem, then answer the first question on their worksheet. After a predetermined time interval, the students will switch worksheets and then answer the next question. Once all the questions on the worksheet have been answered, the students will then have a group conversation based on their thoughts and the answers of their classmates.

Think-Pair-Share
Considering and thinking about a topic or question and then writing what has been learned; pairing with a peer or a small group to share ideas; sharing ideas and discussion with a larger group To construct meaning about a topic or question; to test thinking in relation to the ideas of others; to prepare for a discussion with a larger group
Discussion Groups Engaging in an interactive, small group discussion, often with an assigned role; to consider a topic, text, question, and so on To gain new understanding or insight of a text from multiple perspectives

Quickwrite
Responding to a text by writing for a short, specific amount of time about a designated topic or idea related to a text To activate background knowledge, clarify issues, facilitate making connections, and allow for reflection.

Assessments

Unit 1 Writing prompts:
  • What specific details reveal a central idea in paragraphs 1–2 of chapter 17?
  • How does Machiavelli use rhetoric to advance his point of view in this chapter (17)?
  • Would Macbeth be considered a successful prince under Machiavelli’s rules? Why or why not? Use evidence from both The Prince and Macbeth to support your answer.
Post Unit Assessment
Unit III: Apply concepts from The Prince, a nonfiction text, to the fictional character of Macbeth, considering how Machiavelli’s ideas about effective leadership apply to the fictional King of Scotland.

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