Craft and Structure

“It is a Tale… Full of Sound and Fury”


MODULE 4 OVERVIEW

READING CLOSELY AND WRITING TO ANALYZE

ESSENTIAL QUESTION

How do authors use craft and structure to develop characters and ideas?

This module focuses on students reading, discussing, and analyzing nonfiction and dramatic texts, focusing on how the authors convey and develop central ideas concerning imbalance, disorder, tragedy, mortality, and fate. Students also explore how texts are interpreted visually, both on screen and on canvas.
It also builds upon the key protocols and routines for reading, writing, and discussion that were established in Module 10.1 and developed throughout Modules 10.2 and 10.3.

Common Core Standards

Reading- Literature
RL.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RL.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.
RL.9-10.10 By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, and literary nonfiction, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
CCS Standards: Reading – Informational Text
RI.9-10.1 Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
RI.9-10.4 Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone.
RI.9-10.10 By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, and literary nonfiction, in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
CCS Standards: Writing
W.9-10.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
W.9-10.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of purposes, tasks, and audiences.
CCS Standards: Speaking & Listening
SL.9-10.1 Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
CCS Standards: Language
L.9-10.4.a–d Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies (a–d).

Unit I

“Once in a while, something slips-”
Students read E. B. White’s personal essay “Death of a Pig.” The essay thus serves as a foundation for two important discussions: one around the elements tragedy, in preparation for work with Macbeth in 10.4.2; and one around the structure of a narrative essay.

Suggested Student Objectives
Students will be required to:
1) Read closely for textual details
2) Annotate texts to support comprehension and analysis
3) Engage in productive evidence-based discussions about text
4) Collect and organize evidence from texts to support analysis in writing
5) Collect and organize evidence from texts to support claims made in writing
6) Use vocabulary strategies to define unknown words

Unit II

“There’s no art/ To find the mind’s construction in the face”
Students read William Shakespeare’s Macbeth in its entirety, analyzing how Shakespeare’s structural choices and use of language contribute to the development of characters and central ideas (e.g., imbalance and disorder, contemplating mortality, fate versus agency, and appearance versus reality).
Students also consider representations of Macbeth in other media, first in paintings by Joseph Anton Koch and Henry Fuseli and then in film, via Akira Kurosawa’s Throne of Blood and the Royal Shakespeare Company 2010 production of Macbeth directed by Rupert Goold.

Suggested Student Objectives
Students will be required to:
1) Read closely for textual details
2) Annotate texts to support comprehension and analysis
3) Engage in productive evidence-based conversations about text
4) Determine meaning of unknown vocabulary
5) Independently preview text in preparation for supported analysis
6) Provide an objective summary of the text
7) Paraphrase and quote relevant evidence from a text
8) Construct an argument
9) Analyze various treatments of a text across different media
10)Write original evidence-based claims
11)Generate and respond to questions in scholarly discourse

Unit III

“… to know the nature of the people well one must be a prince, and to know the nature of princes well one must be of the people.”
Students read excerpts from The Prince by Niccolò Machiavelli. Students continue to explore central ideas similar to those present in 10.4.1 and 10.4.2, such as the relationship between appearance and reality and the intersection of morality and ambition with imbalance and disorder.
Students also analyze Machiavelli’s use of rhetoric to advance his point of view.
Students also have a discussion about how Machiavelli’s ideas about leadership might apply to the character of Macbeth.

Suggested Student Objectives
Students will be required to:
1) Read closely for textual details
2) Annotate texts to support comprehension and analysis
3) Engage in productive, evidence-based conversations about texts
4) Determine meaning of unknown vocabulary
5) Independently preview text in preparation for supported analysis
6) Provide an objective summary of the text
7) Paraphrase and quote relevant evidence from a text
8) Analyze how an author uses rhetoric to advance his point of view
9) Write original evidence-based claims
10)Generate and respond to questions in scholarly discourse




Academic Vocabulary

text-specific
writing strategies
structure
point of view
central idea
annotate
diction
cite
supporting detail
develop
paraphrase
structure
characterization
imagery
claim
tone
close reading
analyze
narrative essay
tragedy
dialogue
comparison
repetition
order of time and events



Primary Readings

Unit 1: “Once in a while, something slips-”
Personal Essay
  • “Death of a Pig” E. B. White

Unit 2: “There’s no art/ To find the mind’s construction in the face”
  • Macbeth William Shakespeare
Unit 3:
  • The Prince Niccolò Machiavelli

Resource Links

Found on Engageny.org
Analyze nonfiction: Central and main Ideas pdf
Identify and infer character traits pdf
Inferring traits and supporting with evidence pdf
Answer the BIG Question with Examples and Evidence pdf

These resources are referenced throughout the activities section of this unit.

EngageNY

ReadWriteThink
Lesson Planet
Web English Teacher
Sparknotes
Google Images
Grammar and spelling conventions: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/


Activities

Independent Reading:
Double-entry journals
Group Discussions
Blog Discussions
Socratic seminars
Think-Pair-Share

Essays
Argumentative Essay
Comparative Analysis Writing
Literary Analysis Essay



Assessments


Module Post-Assessment:

1) Select a central idea common to Macbeth and either White’s “Death of a Pig” or Machiavelli’s The Prince. Discuss how each author uses structure, character, word choice, and/or rhetoric to develop this common idea. Explain the nuances in each author’s treatment of the idea.

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